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Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in 2022 forced the United States and its NATO partners to be confronted with the impact of hybrid warfare far beyond the battlefield. Targeting Europe’s energy security, Russia’s malign influence campaigns and malicious cyber intrusions are affecting global gas prices, driving up food costs, disrupting supply chains and grids, and testing US and Allied military mobility. This study examines how hybrid warfare is being used by NATO’s adversaries, what vulnerabilities in energy security exist across the Alliance, and what mitigation strategies are available to the member states.

Cyberattacks targeting the renewable energy landscape during Europe’s green transition are increasing, making it urgent that new tools are developed to protect these emerging technologies. No less significant are the cyber and information operations targeting energy security in Eastern Europe as it seeks to become independent from Russia. Economic coercion is being used against Western and Central Europe to stop gas from flowing. China’s malign investments in Southern and Mediterranean Europe are enabling Beijing to control several NATO member states’ critical energy infrastructure at a critical moment in the global balance of power. What Ukraine Taught NATO about Hybrid Warfare will be an important reference for NATO officials and US installations operating in the European theater.



Publication Date





Carlisle Barracks, PA


critical energy infrastructure, renewable energy, economic coercion, energy security, hybrid warfare cybersecurity, mitigation strategies, emerging technologies, weaponizing critical infrastructure, NATO, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Southeastern Europe, Russia, Ukraine


Defense and Security Studies | Eastern European Studies | Other International and Area Studies | Other Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration | Peace and Conflict Studies | Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies

What Ukraine Taught NATO about Hybrid Warfare