The theory of social stigma provides a context for the subjective experience of African American servicemembers in World War II. Those experiences reveal the paradox the military faces when addressing racial discrimination. An examination of these experiences suggests only a collective response by African American servicemembers will solve this problem.
Douglas W. Bristol Jr., "Two Worlds: African American Servicemembers, WWII and Today," Parameters 50, no. 3 (2020), https://press.armywarcollege.edu/parameters/vol50/iss3/6