Technological revolutions affecting state power are either open or closed. The precursor to the digital age is not the twentieth century, with state-controlled programs yielding nuclear weapons, but the late nineteenth century, when tinkerers invented the radio, airplane, and high explosives—all crucial to subsequent wars. To avoid strategic surprise, the US government must take a broader view of how today’s open innovation is changing society and adapt.
Audrey K. Cronin, "Technology and Strategic Surprise: Adapting to an Era of Open Innovation," Parameters 50, no. 3 (2020), https://press.armywarcollege.edu/parameters/vol50/iss3/8