With the world trending toward urbanization, and Russia and China acting aggressively toward Ukraine and Taiwan, respectively, the conduct of irregular warfare in built-up environments—specifically, urban resistance to occupation—merits greater study. The authors’ Dutch-language and primary source research on the Netherlands’ World War II urban resistance to German occupation makes this article unique. It provides deeper insights into the occupation experiences of a highly urbanized, densely populated country in which clandestine underground and auxiliary elements played paramount roles in resistance efforts for most of the occupation period. It also illustrates the feasibility of overt, guerrilla-based activity in urban environments during the final phase of a conflict and offers insight into an understudied Landpower activity that modern at-risk countries should develop and hone.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Kevin D. Stringer & Jelle J. H. Hooiveld, "Urban Resistance to Occupation: An Underestimated Element of Land Warfare," Parameters 53, no. 3 (2023), doi:10.55540/0031-1723.3244.
Defense and Security Studies Commons, International Relations Commons, Military History Commons, Military, War, and Peace Commons, National Security Law Commons, Other Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration Commons, Peace and Conflict Studies Commons, Policy History, Theory, and Methods Commons, Politics and Social Change Commons, Public Administration Commons, Public Affairs Commons, Terrorism Studies Commons